jules massenet werther wikipedia

He was uninterested in Parisian society, and so shunned the limelight that in later life he preferred not to attend his own first nights. After a few decades of neglect, his works began to be favourably reassessed during the mid-20th century, and many of them have since been staged and recorded. [8] Massenet was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and, from either 1851 or 1853, the Paris Conservatoire. Leading men in recordings of Massenet operas include Roberto Alagna, Gabriel Bacquier, Plácido Domingo, Thomas Hampson, Jonas Kaufmann, José van Dam, Alain Vanzo and Rolando Villazón. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (prantsuse [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]; 12. mai 1842 Montaud – 13. august 1912 Pariis) oli romantilise ajajärgu prantsuse helilooja, dirigent ja muusikapedagoog.19. Warmi: Ninon de Gressy (1866 watamanta). [97], Of Massenet's operas, the two best known, Manon and Werther, have been recorded many times, and studio or live recordings have been issued of many of the others, including Cendrillon, Le Cid, Don Quichotte, Esclarmonde, Hérodiade, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, Le mage, La Navarraise and Thaïs. Sur mon front je sens tes caresses, The French government announced on 6 May that Massenet had been offered the position and had refused it. Irvine reiterates Massenet's claim, but cites no other authority for it. Februar 1892 in der deutschen Fassung von Max Kalbeck an der Wiener Hofoper uraufgeführt wurde. [n 14] Even with his creative powers seemingly in decline he wrote four other operas in his later years – Bacchus, Roma, Panurge and Cléopâtre. [52] The following day it was announced that another faculty member, Théodore Dubois, had been appointed director, and Massenet had resigned as professor of composition. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12. mai 1842–13. August Stoll führte Regie. [77], The 21st-century critic Anne Feeney comments, "Massenet rarely repeated musical phrases, let alone used recurrent themes, so the resemblance [to Wagner] lies solely in the declamatory lyricism and enthusiastic use of the brass and percussion. [3], Der größte Teil der Komposition entstand zwischen Frühjahr 1885 und Winter 1886/87. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (French pronunciation: ​[ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ];[n 1] 12 May 1842 – 13 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. Another respect in which he differed from many opera composers is that he did not work regularly with the same librettists: Grove lists more than thirty writers who provided him with librettos. [59], Macdonald comments that at the start of the 20th century Massenet was in the enviable position of having his works included in every season of the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique, and in opera houses around the world. [44], Thaïs (1894), composed for Sanderson, was moderately received. Und seine Augen werden vergeblich nach mir suchen [17] It was finished in 1877 and was one of the first new works to be staged at the Palais Garnier, opened two years previously. Es una adaptación libre de la novela clásica El joven Werther , de Goethe . It is loosely based on the German epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, which was based both on fact and on Goethe's own early life. [14] On his return he lodged with relations in Montmartre and resumed his studies; by 1859 he had progressed so far as to win the Conservatoire's top prize for pianists. In 1951 Martin Cooper of The Daily Telegraph wrote that Massenet's detractors, including some fellow composers, were on the whole idealistic, even puritanical, "but few of them have in practice achieved anything so near perfection in any genre, however humble, as Massenet achieved in his best works. Es steht wieder ein Ball an, den Sophie mit Werther eröffnen will. Charlotte findet Werther sterbend auf dem Boden. [42] The mingling of operatic and religious elements in his works was such that one of his oratorios, Marie-Magdeleine, was staged as an opera during the composer's lifetime. Warum weckst du mich, du Frühlingshauch? Duchen, p. 122; Gordon, p. 131; Johnson, p. 260; Jones, p. 78; Nectoux (1994), p. 63; and Smith, p. 137. Édouard Blau, Paul Milliet und Georges Hartmann schrieben das Libretto nach dem Briefroman Die Leiden des jungen Werthers von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet sutiyuq runaqa (* 12 ñiqin aymuray killapi 1842 watapi paqarisqa Saint-Étienne llaqtapi - 13 ñiqin chakra yapuy killapi 1912 watapi wañusqa Paris llaqtapi), huk Ransiya mama llaqtayuq rumantiku musika takichaqmi qarqan.. Taytan: Alexis Massenet; Maman: . Adam Cuerden ( talk ) … [67] Then came two serious operas, Ariane, on the Greek legend of Theseus and Ariadne, and Thérèse, a terse drama set in the French Revolution. Then he said to Berlioz pointing to me, "He'll go far, the young rascal, when he's had less experience! Unlike some other French composers of the period, Massenet never fell fully under Wagner's spell, but he took from the earlier composer a richness of orchestration and a fluency in treatment of musical themes. Werther, North Rhine-Westphalia, a town in western Germany; Werther, Thuringia, a municipality in eastern Germany; People with the surname. Extase ! Jules Massenet; , 12. maj 1842 — , 13. avgust 1912) je bio francuski kompozitor. [9], Although when he chose, Massenet could write noisy and dissonant scenes – in 1885 Bernard Shaw called him "one of the loudest of modern composers"[72] – much of his music is soft and delicate. Die Baritonversion wurde auch auf Grundlage einer Arbeitspartitur von 1902 als konzertante Aufführung aus dem Jahre 2004 mit Thomas Hampson (Bariton) als Werther und Susan Graham (Mezzosopran) als Charlotte mit dem Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse unter Leitung von Michel Plasson als DVD veröffentlicht. Ông là nhà soạn nhạc thuộc chủ nghÄ©a lãng mạn. "I have the prize!!!" B. die Inszenierung von Benjamin Prins am Staatstheater Braunschweig, die nur die vier Hauptpersonen sowie einen einzigen Bühnenraum benötigt.[3]. Albert ahnt Werthers Kummer und versucht, mit ihm zu sprechen. [87] Another popular stand-alone orchestral piece from the operas is Le dernier sommeil de la Vierge from La Vierge, which has featured on numerous discs since the middle of the 20th century. "Une soirée bien parisienne et, naturellement, triomphe bien parisien aussi. Solos meld from declamatory passages into more melodic form, in a way that many contemporary critics thought Wagnerian. English: Jules (Émile Frédéric) Massenet (May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer best known for his operas. Hélas ! [17] Massenet's operas consist of anything from one to five acts, and although many of them are described on the title pages of their scores as "opéra" or "opéra comique", others have carefully nuanced descriptions such as "comédie chantée", "comédie lyrique", "comédie-héroïque", "conte de fées", "drame passionnel", "haulte farce musicale", "opéra légendaire", "opéra romanesque" and "opéra tragique".[76]. After winning the country's top musical prize, the Prix de Rome, in 1863, he composed prolifically in many genres, but quickly became best known for his operas. És csak az 1980-as évek óta kerülnek elő ismét. According to his colourful but unreliable memoirs,[9] Massenet auditioned in October 1851, when he was nine, before a judging panel comprising Daniel Auber, Fromental Halévy, Ambroise Thomas and Michele Carafa, and was admitted at once. [12], At the Conservatoire Massenet studied solfège with Augustin Savard and the piano with François Laurent. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (tiếng Pháp: [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]) (sinh ngày 12 tháng 5 năm 1842, mất 13 tháng 8 năm 1912) là nhà soạn nhạc người Pháp, nổi tiếng với những vở Opera do chính ông sáng tác. Werther may also refer to: Places. The two most frequently staged are Manon (1884) and Werther (1892). His pupils included Bruneau, Charpentier, Chausson, Hahn, Leroux, Pierné, Rabaud and Vidal. Am 16. C'est un projet longtemps médité par Massenet, les premières esqui… Moreover, his versatility means that there is no plot or locale that can be regarded as typical Massenet. [64] The main biographical detail of note of his latter years was his second amitié amoureuse with one of his leading ladies, Lucy Arbell, who created roles in his last operas. Porter, Andrew. Warum weckst du mich, du Frühlingshauch? : Purchase Auguste Vaucorbeil, director of the Opéra, refused to stage the composer's new piece, Hérodiade, judging the libretto either improper or inadequate. Jahrhunderts Konjunktur: sowohl Charles Gounod (Faust, 1859) als auch Ambroise Thomas (Mignon, 1866) zeigen dies. For the fashion entrepreneur, see, Performed by l'Atelier Vocal des Herbiers. [104], Rodney Milnes, in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (1992), agrees that Manon and Werther have a secure place in the international repertoire; he counts three others as "re-establishing a toehold" (Cendrillon, Thaïs and Don Quichotte), with many more due for re-evaluation or rediscovery. In 2003 Piotr Kaminsky wrote in Mille et un opéras of Massenet's skill in translating French text into flexible melodic phrases, his exceptional orchestral virtuosity, combining sparkle and clarity, and his unerring theatrical instinct. [68] His last major success was Don Quichotte (1910), which L'Etoile called "a very Parisian evening and, naturally, a very Parisian triumph". Together with Gounod's Faust and Bizet's Carmen it became, and has remained, one of the cornerstones of the French operatic repertoire. "[17], According to Operabase, analysis of productions around the world in 2012–13 shows Massenet as the twentieth most popular of all opera composers, and the fourth most popular French one, after Bizet, Offenbach and Gounod. [9], A rare excursion from the opera house came in 1903 with Massenet's only piano concerto, on which he had begun work while still a student. Weitere berühmte Darsteller des Werther waren Alfred Piccaver, José Carreras, Alfredo Kraus und Neil Shicoff. The elder brothers did so, but Jules preferred the plain single name. Konsequenterweise gibt es daher reduzierte Fassungen, wie z. [31], Massenet was a prolific composer; he put this down to his way of working, rising early and composing from four o'clock in the morning until midday, a practice he maintained all his life. Bere belaunaldiko frantses opera-egile nagusia. Notes Low resolution. laisse couler mes larmes".ogg 2 min 24 s; 3.27 MB Juan Diego Flórez interpreting Werther at the Opernhaus Zürich.jpg 2,040 × 1,632; 2.39 MB Jules Massenet Albumblatt mit Autograph 1896.jpg 1,380 × 403; 185 KB Der Wiener Musikschriftsteller Max Kalbeck besorgte die deutsche Übersetzung des auf Goethe fußenden französischen Librettos.[2]:67. [45] By the 1990s, Massenet's reputation had been considerably rehabilitated. Try Prime Cart. List A phrase which occurs in the first love duet breaks out once or twice in subsequent amorous episodes, and has been seized on by a few unwary critics as a Wagnerian leit motif. Pourquoi me réveiller, ô souffle du printemps ? [n 2] Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger; his wife was a talented amateur musician who gave Jules his first piano lessons. Diese gesteht sich nun ein, dass auch sie Werther liebt. Anfangs war geplant, in Wien die Oper Werther zusammen mit einem Ballett aufzuführen, und so entstand Massenets Le Carillon. Er erzählt den auch anwesenden Freunden Schmidt und Johann von seiner ältesten Tochter, die die Mutterrolle für ihre jüngeren Geschwister angenommen hat, nachdem die Mutter gestorben ist. Werther ist eine Oper („Drame lyrique“) in vier Akten und fünf Bildern von Jules Massenet, die am 16. [13] He pursued his studies, with modest distinction, until the beginning of 1855, when family concerns disrupted his education. Han er best kjent for å ha skrive ei rekkje operaer. Die beiden Hauptpartien waren mit Ernest van Dyck (Werther) und Marie Renard (Charlotte) besetzt. Schließlich flieht er wie ein Wahnsinniger, bevor die feiernde Gesellschaft erscheint. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Werther is a 130-minute studio album of Jules Massenet 's opera, performed by a cast led by José Carreras, Frederica von Stade, Sir Thomas Allen, Isobel Buchanan and Robert Lloyd with the orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden under the direction of Sir Colin Davis. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (tiếng Pháp: [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]) (sinh ngày 12 tháng 5 năm 1842, mất 13 tháng 8 năm 1912) là nhà soạn nhạc người Pháp, nổi tiếng với những vở Opera do chính ông sáng tác. Massenet did not complete his next project, Amadis, and it was not until 1892 that he recovered his earlier successful form. "[34], This period was an early high point in Massenet's career. Dua karya terkenalnya adalah Manon (1884) dan Werther (1892). [60][n 12] Apart from composition, his main concern was his home life in the rue de Vaugirard, Paris, and at his country house in Égreville. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (bahasa Prancis: [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]; lahir 12 Mei 1842 – meninggal 13 Agustus 1912 pada umur 70 tahun) adalah seorang komponis Prancis dari era Romansa yang dikenal karena karya operanya, dimana ia menulis lebih dari tiga puluh buah. It has been released on compact disc (2008), together with contemporary recordings by Grieg, Saint-Saëns, Debussy and others. [17], Massenet was a fluent and skilful orchestrator, and willingly provided ballet episodes for his operas, incidental music for plays, and a one-act stand-alone ballet for Vienna (Le carillon, 1892). Most of his early chamber pieces are now lost; three pieces for cello and piano survive. Morgen wird ein Wanderer ins Tal kommen, Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (født 12. maj 1842, død 13. august 1912) (udtales masné) var en fransk komponist. A Werther Jules Massenet egyik négyfelvonásos operája. He also composed oratorios, ballets, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces, songs and other music. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians lists forty Massenet operas in all, of which nine are shown as lost or destroyed. A Catalunya, s'estrenà al Gran Teatre del Liceu de Barcelona el 29 d'abril de 1899. und nichts finden als Trauer und Elend! Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (Montaud, Saint-Étienne inguruan, 1842ko maiatzaren 12a - Paris, 1912ko abuztuaren 13a) frantses musikagilea izan zen. Did I need comforting? In the 1930s Sir Thomas Beecham told the critic Neville Cardus, "I would give the whole of Bach's Brandenburg Concertos for Massenet's Manon, and would think I had vastly profited by the exchange. He made a living by teaching the piano and publishing songs, piano pieces and orchestral suites, all in the popular style of the day. Charlotte ahnt Werthers Selbstmordabsichten und eilt in der Weihnachtsnacht durch das verschneite Wetzlar in der verzweifelten Absicht, ihn daran zu hindern. [9] After the composer's death Arbell pursued his widow and publishers through the law courts, seeking to secure herself a monopoly of the leading roles in several of his late operas. [17], In August 1912 Massenet went to Paris from his house at Égreville to see his doctor. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (født 12. maj 1842, død 13. august 1912) (udtales masné) var en fransk komponist.Han er bedst kendt for sine operaer, som var meget populære omkring 1900.Efter hans død er de fleste gået i glemmebogen undtagen Manon og Werther og til dels fx Thais og Esclarmonde. However, his style fell out of favor after his death and, except Manon, his works were rarely performed.Since the mid-1970s, many of his operas have seen periodic revivials se souvenant de ma gloire première. Seuraavat oopperat Le Cid, Le Mage ja Esclarmonde eivät menestyneet, mutta vuoden 1892 Werther sai jälleen suuren suosion. Dua karya terkenalnya adalah Manon (1884) dan Werther (1892). Ils ne retrouveront plus que deuil et que misère ! [63] He described himself as "a fireside man, a bourgeois artist". It was released in 1981. [17] Arthur Hervey, a contemporary critic not unsympathetic to Massenet, commented that Marie-Magdeleine and the later oratorio Ève (1875) were "the Bible doctored up in a manner suitable to the taste of impressionable Parisian ladies – utterly inadequate for the theme, at the same time very charming and effective. [92], In Massenet's later years, and in the decade after his death, many of his songs and opera extracts were recorded. [n 15] The religious element was a regular theme in his secular as well as sacred works: this derived not from any strong personal faith, but from his response to the dramatic aspects of Roman Catholic ritual. [4] Les dues més representades són Manon (1884) i Werther (1892). [56], With Grisélidis and Cendrillon complete, though still awaiting performance, Massenet began work on Sapho, based on a novel by Daudet about the love of an innocent young man from the country for a worldly-wise Parisienne. The Paris correspondent of The New York Times wrote that with this new work Massenet "has resolutely declared himself a melodist of undoubted consistency and of remarkable inspiration. Authorities differ on the exact total because some of the works, particularly from his early years, are lost and others were left incomplete. Werther (Massenet, Jules) Movements/Sections Mov'ts/Sec's: 4 acts Composition Year 1887 ... Wikipedia article: Navigation etc. Among his students were Gustave Charpentier, Ernest Chausson, Reynaldo Hahn and Gabriel Pierné. Las penas del joven Werther [nota 1] (en alemán, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) es una novela epistolar semiautobiográfica de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.. El principal personaje de la novela, Werther, es un joven de carácter sensible y pasional que se enamora perdidamente de Charlotte, una mujer que se halla comprometida a otro hombre. "Tristan und Isolde at the ROH, Werther at Opera North". But if Wagner had never existed, Manon would have been composed much as it stands now, whereas if Meyerbeer and Gounod had not made a path for M. Massenet, it is impossible to say whither he might have wandered, or how far he could have pushed his way. Dezember 2019 um 23:04 Uhr bearbeitet. [24] During his time in Rome, Massenet met Franz Liszt, at whose request he gave piano lessons to Louise-Constance "Ninon" de Gressy, the daughter of one of Liszt's rich patrons. Les deux boursiers (Ópera, 1859); Ouverture de concert (Música orquestral, 1863); David Rizzio (Grand Prix de Roma; Cantata, 1863) Sie wurde 10 Jahre nach der Tenorfassung uraufgeführt und wird relativ selten gespielt, so im Februar/März 2009 in Paris. Saint-Étienne, 12 May 1842; died Paris, 13 August 1912) was a French composer. Many of the elements of traditional grand opera are written into later large-scale works such as Le mage and Hérodiade. Werther ist eine Oper (Drame lyrique) in vier Akten und fünf Bildern von Jules Massenet, die am 16. The composer had been suffering from abdominal cancer for some months, but his symptoms did not seem imminently life-threatening. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12. mai 1842–13. "[9] Romain Rolland and Francis Poulenc have both considered Massenet an influence on Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande;[9] Debussy was a student at the Conservatoire during Massenet's professorship but did not study under him. Diese Idee gab man jedoch wieder auf. His early collections of songs were particularly popular and helped establish his reputation. [17][n 6], In October 1866 Massenet and Ninon were married; their only child, Juliette, was born in 1868. [11] Both sources agree that Massenet continued his general education at the lycée in tandem with his musical studies. Werther received its first performance in February 1892, when the Vienna Hofoper asked for a new piece, following the enthusiastic reception of the Austrian premiere of Manon. Jules Massenet. Die Erstaufführung in französischer Sprache war am 27. "He had a gift for melody of a suave, voluptuous and eminently singable kind, and the intelligence and dramatic sense to make the most of it." He recalled: Ambroise Thomas, my beloved master, came towards me and said, "Embrace Berlioz, you owe him a great deal for your prize." [2]:55 Nun schaltete sich die Wiener Hofoper ein und begann Verhandlungen mit dem Komponisten. [26] At around the same time he composed a Requiem, which has not survived. [9] In the same year he had a modest success in Paris with the one-act Le portrait de Manon at the Opéra-Comique, and a much greater one in London with La Navarraise at Covent Garden. et pourtant bien proche est le temps des orages et des tristesses ! Jules Massenet;, 12. maj 1842 —, 13. avgust 1912) je bio francuski kompozitor. He is best known for his operas, which were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th century; they afterwards fell into oblivion for the most part, but have undergone periodic revivals since the mid-1970's. He also composed oratorios, ballets, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces, songs and other music. Massenet's musical career was briefly interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, during which he served as a volunteer in the National Guard alongside his friend Bizet. Although critics do not rank him among the handful of outstanding operatic geniuses such as Mozart, Verdi and Wagner, his operas are now widely accepted as well-crafted and intelligent products of the Belle Époque. Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (prantsuse [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]; 12. mai 1842 Montaud – 13. august 1912 Pariis) oli romantilise ajajärgu prantsuse helilooja, dirigent ja muusikapedagoog.19. Sidan er mange av dei blitt gløymde, sjølv om dei periodevis er blitt gjenoppførte sidan. [2]:53 Allerdings definierten die Librettisten im Vergleich zu Goethes Vorlage Charlottes Beziehung zu Werther neu: Während in der Literaturverlage Charlottes Beziehung zu Werther nur brüderlich ist, ist ihre Liebe zu Werther in der Oper echt, wenngleich sie auch von ihr erst im Finale eingestanden wird. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th century. Édouard Blau, Paul Milliet und Georges Hartmann schrieben das Libretto nach dem Briefroman Die Leiden des jungen Werthers von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. [17], The 1954 (fifth) edition of Grove said of Massenet, "to have heard Manon is to have heard the whole of him". Rurasqankuna [15] The family's finances were no longer comfortable, and to support himself Massenet took private piano students and played as a percussionist in theatre orchestras. In Macdonald's view, Massenet "embodies many enduring aspects of the belle époque, one of the richest cultural periods in history". Massenet wrote in 1910 that he had remained in post as professor out of loyalty to Thomas, and was eager to abandon all academic work in favour of composing, a statement repeated by his biographers Hugh Macdonald and Demar Irvine. [58] His next work staged there was Cendrillon, his version of the Cinderella story, which was well received in May 1899. It was also performed at the Hungarian State Opera House, the Bavarian State Opera, the Semperoper in Dresden, the Teatro Real in Madrid, and the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in London. Werther stirbt in ihren Armen („Non â€¦ Charlotte â€¦ je meurs“). "[17], Massenet's Parisian audiences were greatly attracted by the exotic in music, and Massenet willingly obliged, with musical evocations of far-flung places or times long past. The audience clamoured for the composer to acknowledge the applause, but Massenet, always a shy man, declined to take even a single curtain call. Les deux boursiers (Ópera, 1859); Ouverture de concert (Música orquestral, 1863); David Rizzio (Grand Prix de Roma; Cantata, 1863) [30], After order was restored, Massenet returned to Paris where he completed his first large-scale stage work, an opéra comique in four acts, Don César de Bazan (Paris, 1872). Die Orchesterbesetzung der Oper enthält die folgenden Instrumente:[1]. A. Thomasen ikasle izan zen Parisko Kontserbatorioan, eta 1878 … Despite some miscalculations, he produced a series of successes that made him the leading composer of opera in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Suomen ensi-esitys oli Suomalaisessa oopperassa tammikuussa 1922 lähde?. [17] He found the war so "utterly terrible" that he refused to write about it in his memoirs. "Tilting in the approved manner", Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Massenet's New Success – The Production of his, "Caricature and the Unconscious: Jules Massenet's Thaïs, a Case Study", "Au-delà du scandale de 1905: Propos sur le Prix de Rome au début du XXe siècle", "Legendary Piano Recordings – Track listing", " Legendary piano recordings : the complete Grieg, Saint-Saëns, Pugno, and Diémer and other G & T rarities", "Emma Calvé : the complete 1902 G&T, 1920 Pathé and Mapleson cylinder recordings", Official website (Association Massenet Internationale), All Music biographical notes on Massenet (in English), Extensive biography with list of references and compositions (in French), "Massenet, Mary Garden, and the Chicago Opera 1910–1932", International Music Score Library Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jules_Massenet&oldid=1001204351, Honorary Members of the Royal Philharmonic Society, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 18:16.

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